Female Brains Change in Line With Hormones

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Although it himagesas already been known for some time that the brain does not remain rigid in its structure even in adulthood, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences made a surprising discovery: The brain is not only able to adapt to changing conditions in long-term processes, but it can do so every month. The researchers observed that in women, in parallel to the rhythm of the level of oestrogen across their menstrual cycle, the structures of the Hippocampus vary — a brain area that is crucial for memories, mood and emotions.

Each month, women experience the up and down of hormones during their menstrual cycle. And from month to month these variations appear to not just influence the switching between fertile and infertile days. The fluctuating hormone levels also change the structure of the brain in astonishing regularity, as demonstrated by the results of the study on the hormonal influence on the brain structure at the  in Leipzig.

“We found, that in parallel to the rising oestrogen levels leading up to ovulation, the Hippocampus also increases in volume–the volume of the grey matter as well as that of the white matter”,

explains Claudia Barth, first author of the corresponding paper published in the renowned magazine Nature Scientific Reports. How these fluctuations of the brain structures precisely affect the behaviour and specific cognitive abilities remains a mystery. But the neuroscientists do have a theory:

“The Hippocampus plays a crucial role in our memories, our mood, and our emotions. In mice it has already been proven that it is not just this brain structure but also different behaviours which underlie a type of monthly cycle.”

Whether these observations are also valid for humans has to be proven in further studies. After testing the results of this first pilot study on the connection between the level of oestrogen and the Hippocampus in a larger group of study participants, the researchers will scrutinise the effects on the behaviour. “If it appears, for instance, that women in certain phases of their cycle are particularly receptive, these women could undergo therapy”, she explains. This could take place at a specific time point when a woman is in a position to do so.”

With these findings, the neuroscientists have laid the foundations for their overall goal: Investigating the relationships of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a disorder which affects one in twelve women in the days leading up to her time of the month. These women complain of severe physical and psychological symptoms such as listlessness or mood swings comparable to a depressive episode.

Nutritional interventions have been employed for millennia in the modification of hormonal variations, from enzymes, plant extracts, glandulars and mimetics, there are a wide range of potential interventions to reduce the symptoms and resolve the mechanisms. Many women for example find that the increased hormonal soup cannot be broken down in appropriate timings and as such these messenger molecules become disproportionately abundant, or conversely the levels fail to meet the require levels to ensure a smooth menstrual shift.


  1. Barth C, Steele CJ, Mueller K, Rekkas VP, Arélin K, Pampel A, Burmann I, Kratzsch J, Villringer A, Sacher J In-vivo Dynamics of the Human Hippocampus across the Menstrual Cycle. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 7;6:32833. View Full Paper

  2. Behboodi Moghadam Z, Rezaei E, Shirood Gholami R, Kheirkhah M, Haghani H. The effect of Valerian root extract on the severity of pre menstrual syndrome symptoms. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016 Jan 19;6(3):309-15 View Abstract
  3. Fanaei H, Khayat S, Kasaeian A, Javadimehr M. Effect of curcumin on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with premenstrual syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neuropeptides. 2016 Apr;56:25-31. View Abstract
  4. Dadkhah H, Ebrahimi E, Fathizadeh N. Evaluating the effects of vitamin D and vitamin E supplement on premenstrual syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2016 Mar-Apr;21(2):159-64 View Full Paper
  5. Masoumi SZ, Ataollahi M, Oshvandi K. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Caring Sci. 2016 Mar 1;5(1):67-73. View Abstract
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