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Adaptive Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (iTreg) cells develop outside the thymus under subimmunogenic antigen presentation, during chronic inflammation, and during normal homeostasis of the gut. iTreg cells are essential in mucosal immune tolerance and in the control of severe chronic allergic inflammation, and most likely are one of the main barriers to the eradication of tumors. The Foxp3+ iTreg cell repertoire is drawn from naive conventional CD4+ T cells, whereas natural Treg (nTreg) cells are selected by high-avidity interactions in the thymus.

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Regular consumption of fermented foods containing lactic acid bacteria, such as yoghurt has been found to have a beneficial effect on immune function. In human studies, yoghurt intake has been shown to stimulate the response of systemic natural killer cells when presented with their targets and enhance phagocytic activity of monocytes. In other studies, the stimulation of immune function by probiotic bacteria and classical yoghurt starter cultures has been demonstrated.

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As prophylaxis against ventilator-associated pneumonia, the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp299) is as effective as the antiseptic chlorhexidine in reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the oropharynx of tracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients, results of a pilot study indicate.

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Patients with functional gut disorders, irritable bowel disease, and related syndromes frequently attribute their symptoms to intestinal gas. While patients are usually convinced of their interpretation, the doctor has few arguments to confirm or refute it, and in this context intestinal gas has become a myth. Studies of intestinal gas dynamics have demonstrated subtle dysfunctions

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Close, tightly orchestrated interactions between the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated immune system are critical for normal intestinal absorptive and immunological functions. Recent data indicate that commensal intestinal microbiota represents a major modulator of intestinal homeostasis. This review analyses the process of intestinal colonisation and the interaction of microbiota with the intestinal epithelium and mucosal

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Abstract: Immunological dysregulation is the cause of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms, both symbiotic and pathogenic. In this Review the authors discuss findings indicating that developmental aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced

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Free review by Michael Ash on novel use of probiotics for slowing the effects of ageing and related documents. We recommend downloading the PDF pack to ensure all links work properly.

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