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Many people suffer from an allergy to cow’s milk and other common foods, and whilst avoidance of the trigger has long been seen as the gold standard of management an evolving mechanism for treatment is being developed using oral tolerance triggers to restore food exposure competence.

Studies in several clinical trials in allergen-sublingual immunotherapy (SIT) have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state against allergens in many ways represents a key step in the development of a healthy immune response against allergens. Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been demonstrated: allergen-specific suppressive capacities of both inducible subsets of CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box P3(+) T-regulatory and IL-10-secreting type 1 T-regulatory cells increase in peripheral blood; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils; Antibody isotype change from IgE to IgG4.[1]