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Comment: It’s common knowledge that a protective navy of bacteria normally floats in our intestinal tracts. Antibiotics at least temporarily disturb the normal balance. But it’s unclear which antibiotics are the most disruptive, and if the full array of “good bacteria” return promptly or remain altered for some time. In studies in mice, University of Michigan scientists have shown for the first time that two different types of antibiotics can cause moderate to wide-ranging changes in the ranks of these helpful guardians in the gut. In the case of one of the antibiotics, the armada of “good bacteria” did not recover its former diversity even many weeks after a course of antibiotics was over.

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University of Nebraska-Lincoln researchers embark on a long-term mission to improve overall health by unravelling the nuances of the gut.

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Adaptive Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (iTreg) cells develop outside the thymus under subimmunogenic antigen presentation, during chronic inflammation, and during normal homeostasis of the gut. iTreg cells are essential in mucosal immune tolerance and in the control of severe chronic allergic inflammation, and most likely are one of the main barriers to the eradication of tumors. The Foxp3+ iTreg cell repertoire is drawn from naive conventional CD4+ T cells, whereas natural Treg (nTreg) cells are selected by high-avidity interactions in the thymus.

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