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Rudy Segna, MD is the Associate Director Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology & Reproductive Science at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. He has served as the Director of Gynecologic Oncology and the Colposcopy Service at the Naval Medical Center in Virginia and has published multiple articles and chapters in medical journals and textbooks. He is the winner of the 2009 and 2008 Patients Choice Awards.

A 2012 study in the international Journal of Functional Foods in Health and Disease finds that glycophospholipids significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients who are positive on the western blot test for Borrelia burgdorferi infection, known as Lyme Disease.1 The western blot is the gold standard test for this infection, which is the most common vector-borne illness in North America.

It isn’t every newsletter issue that FOCUS has the privilege of featuring a scientist whose theory of a fundamental biological phenomenon is accepted throughout the biological and medical sciences as the standard textbook model. Such is the case with S. J. Singer’s and Garth Nicolson’s landmark theory of the Fluid Mosaic Model of cell membranes. This model, proposed in 1972 and published in the prestigious journal SCIENCE, has been called a “unified theory” of the cell membrane. This model has been tested and retested for many decades, and it is now believed to accurately predict the structure and behaviour of all cellular membranes. Over the intervening years this theory has been confirmed by many sophisticated physical and chemical techniques, including one known as freeze-fracture electron microscopy.

In the mid-1960s I had the honour of working with Professor S. J. Singer on the Fluid Mosaic Model of Biological Membranes for my doctoral thesis. At the time the cell membrane was thought to be a rather static three-layer structure with lipids sandwiched in between protein inner and outer layers. However, we knew that this static 3-layer structure did not fit with the wide range of physical and chemical information that had recently become available on membrane structure.

By Dr Stephen Levine PhD.

This issue of FOCUS has special meaning for me. It reaches back in time to the incredible excitement generated in the early 1970’s by the stunning discoveries of Singer and Nicolson. These two scientists deciphered the actual biochemical structure of the cellular membrane. They called it the Lipid Bi-Layer Fluid Mosaic Model. I was a graduate student in genetics at UC Berkeley. Their model was talked about in laboratories, over lunch tables, and in classrooms. It was a truly exciting time.

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