Eating just 1 serving daily of legumes such as beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas can significantly reduce “bad cholesterol” and the risk of heart disease, found a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
High cholesterol levels are commonly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, yet in the main they are modifiable through diet and other lifestyle choices. Most chronic disease prevention guidelines recommend consumption of non–oil-seed legumes (dietary pulses) such as beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas along with other vegetables and fruits as part of a healthy diet, although they have not made specific recommendations based on direct lipid-lowering benefits.
The study, conducted by researchers from many centres in Canada and the United States, reviewed 26 randomised controlled trials that included 1037 people. Despite variation between studies, the researchers found:
- a 5% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in people who ate 1 serving (3/4 cup) of non–oil-seed legumes a day.
Men had greater reduction in LDL cholesterol than women, perhaps because their diets are poorer and cholesterol levels are higher and benefit more markedly from a healthier diet. Some study participants reported stomach upset such as bloating, flatulence, diarrhoea or constipation.
The authors note that although consumption levels of legumes is low in Western countries such as Canada and the United States, 1 serving a day “is reasonable and is currently consumed by many cultures without reports of adverse effects that would limit consumption.”
The authors hope this study will add to the body of evidence upon which dietary guidelines are based. Most current evidence is of low quality, and the authors call for more high-quality research.
“Because dietary pulse intake may have beneficial effects on other cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, blood pressure and glucose control, future systematic reviews and meta-analyses should evaluate the effects of such dietary interventions on these outcomes and others, to address factors that contribute to residual cardiovascular disease risk,” the authors conclude.
 Ha V, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Jayalath VH, Mirrahimi A, Agarwal A, Chiavaroli L, Blanco Mejia S, Sacks FM, Di Buono M, Bernstein AM, Leiter LA, Kris-Etherton PM, Vuksan V, Bazinet RP, Josse RG, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2014 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]