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There is considerable interest in the impact of (n-3) long-chain PUFA in mitigating the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic diseases. In 2002, the Institute of Medicine concluded that insufficient data were available to define Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), noting only that EPA and DHA could contribute up to 10% toward meeting the Adequate Intake for alpha-linolenic acid. Since then, substantial new evidence has emerged supporting the need to reassess this recommendation.

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Background: Previous experimental studies have suggested many possible anti-cancer mechanisms for green tea, but epidemiologic evidence for the effect of green tea consumption on gastric cancer risk is conflicting.

Objective: To examine the association between green tea consumption and gastric cancer.

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Four Candida species, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, together account for 95% of identifiable Candida infections. Although C. albicans is still the most common causative agent, its incidence is declining and the frequency of other species is increasing. Of these, C. parapsilosis is a particular problem in neonates, transplant recipients and patients receiving parenteral nutrition; C. tropicalis is

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Much debate has focused on whether antioxidants interfere with the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The objective of this study is to systematically review the randomized, controlled clinical trial evidence evaluating the effects of concurrent use of antioxidants with chemotherapy on toxic side effects.

PURPOSE: Some in the oncology community contend that patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy should not use food supplement antioxidants and other nutrients. Oncologists at an influential oncology institution contended that antioxidants interfere with radiation and some chemotherapies because those modalities kill by generating free radicals that are neutralized by antioxidants, and that folic acid interferes with methotrexate. This is despite the common use of amifostine and dexrazoxane, 2 prescription antioxidants, during chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Links

Monday, 08 June 2009 by

A selection of links providing educational support

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) can modulate immune responses, but whether it directly affects B cell function is unknown. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, especially those with antinuclear Abs and increased disease activity, had decreased 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, suggesting that vitamin D might play a role in regulating autoantibody production. To address this, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on B cell responses and found that it inhibited the ongoing proliferation of activated B cells and induced their apoptosis, whereas initial cell division was unimpeded.

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Immune system regulation is of paramount importance to host survival. In settings of autoimmunity and alloimmunity, control is lost, resulting in injury to vital organs and tissues. Naturally occurring, thymic-derived T regulatory (Treg) cells that express CD4, CD25, and the forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) are potent suppressors of these adverse immune responses. Preclinical studies

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Adaptive Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (iTreg) cells develop outside the thymus under subimmunogenic antigen presentation, during chronic inflammation, and during normal homeostasis of the gut. iTreg cells are essential in mucosal immune tolerance and in the control of severe chronic allergic inflammation, and most likely are one of the main barriers to the eradication of tumors. The Foxp3+ iTreg cell repertoire is drawn from naive conventional CD4+ T cells, whereas natural Treg (nTreg) cells are selected by high-avidity interactions in the thymus.

Regulatory T cells are important for ensuring that the immune system does not attack self and does not overreact to external antigens. Understanding how these cells develop and maintain stable function provides general insights into cellular differentiation in general, as well as new opportunities for therapeutic manipulation. Herman Waldmann, Stephen Cobbold. Regulatory T Cells: Context

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